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The last two paragraphs of the paper by Dr. Keith Murphy explaining why reducing the percentage of oxygen in your tires is so beneficial to extending tire life and improving fuel economy.
GNI states that while a nitrogen level of about 93-95% (in passenger tires) is important for better maintenance of tire pressure, reducing the oxygen level in your tires from 20% to about 5% is also very important. Besides migrating out through your tires 3-4 times faster than nitrogen, oxygen
(via oxidation) breaks down the tire's inner liner as it migrates out through the rubber, and it can attack any metal components including rims, TPMS sensors, valves, and tire repairs.
Another important benefit of nitrogen is the elimination of the moisture and contaminants found in compressed air. Moisture speeds up the oxidation process which can rust steel belts as it permeates out through a tire and cause corrosion around the rim at the tire bead. Contaminants can clog valve cores and create small leaks.
So it's not just about increasing the amount of nitrogen in your tires, but also about reducing the amount of oxygen and water vapor, which contribute to oxidation and increased pressure loss (and thus decreased fuel economy and faster tire wear).